One Day International’s or ODI’s are played between two teams with international ODI status. ODI’s are also called as Limited Overs International’s (LOI), however, this is the broader version for a definition as Twenty 20 cricket also comes under this category of LOI’s. An ODI is played for limited overs per team, usually 50. The World Cup is played in the same format.
During the early days of cricket, Test match was the only form of cricket, there was no World Cup, no day’s restriction on Test matches. Then there was a 5 day limitation on Test matches as well and during one of the occasions of 5 day Test played between Australia and England in 1971, the ODI was introduced. After the first three days of the Test match being washed out due to rain, on the fourth day, i.e. 5th January 1971, Australia and England played a limited overs match of 40 overs (8 balls per over). Australia won the match by 5 wickets and this brought the cricketing world with a new form of cricket i.e. ODI’s. In early days of ODI cricket, there were no color uniforms; cricket was played with white dress, before the natural light went off and with a red ball.
In 1979, on 17th January the first ODI was played in coloured uniforms, when WSC Australia in Gold took on WSC West Indies in Pink. As the game went on developing, matches started to be played under flood lights with a white ball.
An ODI is played normal cricketing rules; however, both sides get to bat only for fixed overs. Earlier, 60 overs were there in an ODI, today it is 50 overs. There are fielding restrictions too unlike in Test cricket.
1. Each team will consist of 11 players with one captain.
2. The winner of the toss will decide whether to bat or bowl (field).
3. The side batting first will post a score in the fixed no. of overs and the side batting second has to chase it down in the fixed no. of overs.
4. Each bowler is restricted to maximum of 10 overs in a 50 over match. Any reduction in overs then the limiting overs a bowler can bowl is calculated. In normal circumstances, the fixed no. of overs are divided by 5 for calculating the maximum overs a bowler can bowl.
5. If both teams score the same no. of runs, irrespective of overs faced or wickets fallen, it is declared as a tie. A winner of a tied match in a final of any tournament or in some cases, even knock out matches, is decided by a super over where each team plays one more over each with 2 wickets in hand. It is upto the team which 3 players will bat in the super over. Any bowler irrespective of the maximum overs bowled or not, can bowl in a super over. Till today, there have been no occurrences of super over in an ODI.
Reduction in Overs:
When the overs are reduced due to weather conditions or bad light, then a method called as DLS is used. It is known as the Duckworth Lewis Stern method. Till 2015, the Duckworth Lewis was used and it was popularly known as the D/L method (read as D by L method). D/L method was used from the late 1990’s as previously, when there was such occurrence, the team with a higher run rate would be declared as winner. This gave advantage to the team batting second. Then, taking out the worst overs of the team batting first was put to practice but this gave advantage to the team batting first. This gave rise to D/L. If I go to explain what D/L is, you would probably die so I prefer not to. However, in the D/L and in the DLS method, some prescribed no. of overs have to bowled for it to be implemented otherwise the match is declared as abandoned.
In an ODI, the bowling side is subject to fielding restrictions so that the fielding team cannot set a completely defensive field.
1. In the first 10 overs of mandatory powerplay, only 2 fielders are allowed to be outside the 30 yard circle.
2. In the next powerplay of 5 overs, which is to be taken by the batting team between overs 16th to 40th, only 3 fielders are allowed beyond the 30 yard circle.
3. For the rest of the overs, 4 fielders are allowed beyond the 30-yard circle.
In 1992, only 2 fielders were allowed outside the 30 yard circle for the first 15 overs and for the remaining overs, 5 fielders were allowed outside the 30 yard circle. In 2005, the mandatory powerplay of 15 overs was reduced to 10 overs and two, 5 over powerplays were introduced. Both the powerplays were to be taken by the bowling team between 11th to 50th over. In 2008, the timing of one of the powerplay was given for the batting team to decide and it was called the batting powerplay. In 2011, both the powerplays were restricted to be taken in overs 16th to 40th. In 2012, the bowling powerplay was removed and the fielding restriction outside the 30 yard circle, in which there are no powerplays was reduced from 5 to 4.
Major tournaments played in ODI format:
–> ICC Cricket World Cup
–> ICC Champions Trophy