2) No appeal
Although this might seem like common sense, an umpire is not allowed to give a batsman out without an appeal from the fielding side. According to Law 27, this does not prohibit a batsman from leaving his wicket without an appeal being made.
The umpire shall intervene if a batsman walks and he is satisfied that the batsman is not out. He will call the batsman back onto the field and signal a dead ball. The appeal from the fielding side can be made any time before the bowler starts his run-up for the next delivery.
The first incident of Mankading happened in 1947 when Indian bowler Vinoo Mankad dismissed Australian Bill Brown; since then a batsman dismissed in this fashion is known to have been Mankaded. The dismissal occurs when the non-striker leaves the crease before the bowler rolls his arm and release the ball.
During the U-19 Wold Cup 2016, West Indies bowler Kemo Paul Mankaded Zimbabwe batsman Richard Nagarava in the last over of a thrilling match. West Indies needed just one wicket while Zimbabwe had to score three runs to qualify for the quarterfinal. But, a clever decision from Paul, who noticed that Nagarava left the crease, changed the course of the tournament as West Indies went on to win the tournament defeating the favourites India.
The MCC (Law 42.15) states that “The bowler is permitted, before entering his delivery stride, to attempt to run out the non-striker. Whether the attempt is successful or not, the ball shall not count as one of the over. If the bowler fails in an attempt to run out the non-striker, the umpire shall call and signal Dead ball as soon as possible.”
Forfeiture is only applied to the longer format of the game, as it can only occur when each team is scheduled to bat in two innings. This is when a captain can give up an entirely completed innings, in order to get a result in a Test match.
An example of this was in 2000 when South Africa captain Hansie Cronje approached English captain Nasser Hussain on the fifth and final Test match at Centurion. The rain washed out three days, with South Africa scoring 155 for 6 on the first day.
Cronje chose to declare at 248 in the first innings and forfeited the second innings, with England forfeiting their first and needing 249 to win the Test match with less than a day left. England won by two wickets; however controversy sparked when it emerged that Cronje was approached by bookmakers, and he had fixed the game so that a result was made.
5) Lost ball
If the ball is lost and can’t be recovered the fielding side can call it ‘lost ball’. According to the law, the delivery then becomes dead and is soon replaced with a ball whose condition was similar to the one that was lost.
The batting side shall be additionally awarded: for any penalties scored, for runs ran between the crease from the batsmen or a number of runs (maybe even a 6) hit when the ball was lost.’
Thus, runs will be credited to the batsman who hit the ball, if otherwise (on the pads, body) it will be known as extras.
6) Handling the ball
This dismissal only deals with a batsman who intentionally hits the ball away with his hand and the hand is not holding the bat. According to the laws of cricket, there are various ways a batsman can avoid being out via handling the ball is retrieving the ball for the fielder with his consent. The wicket does not go to the bowler.
The last time a batsman was given obeying this law in 2001 between India and England, where Michael Vaughan handled a ball from Virender Sehwag in a Test match in Bangalore. Vaughan, was was no 64, hit the ball away from him and was deemed out for handling the ball; only nine instances of this have occurred in international cricket.